Department of Labor and Regulation

Title - Labor Market Information Center

Definitions

Click on a letter below to see definition entries beginning with that letter.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Activities of the South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation (Published in the South Dakota e-Labor Bulletin.)
The Local Office and Unemployment Insurance Activities data are taken from South Dakota employment service (local South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation (DLR) offices) and state unemployment insurance program reports. The local DLR office data are reported on a rolling four-quarter basis, and the UI program data are monthly totals. See South Dakota Local Office Activities Data and
South Dakota Unemployment Insurance Activities for explanations of the specific data published.

Annual Pay
Annual pay of workers covered by unemployment insurance laws, which is derived by dividing the total pay of all covered workers by the average monthly number of covered workers. Covered employment and pay are reported by all covered employers each quarter. Annual pay data is developed by the South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation. See technical notes.

Average Hourly Earnings (available on the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics website)
Average earnings, on an hourly basis, of nonfarm wage and salaried production workers. They are gross figures and reflect not only changes in basic hourly and incentive wage rates but also such variable factors as premium pay for over-time and late-shift work and changes in output of workers paid on an incentive plan. They also reflect shifts in the number of employees between relatively high-paid and low-paid work and changes in workers' earnings in individual establishments. Averages for groups and divisions further reflect differences in average hourly earnings for individual industries. Average hourly earnings are derived from a sample of employers who report payrolls and hours for production workers each month. Average hourly earnings data are produced by the Labor Market Information Center in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Annual Weekly Earnings (available on the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics website)
Average earnings, on a weekly basis, of nonfarm wage and salaried production workers. They are gross figures and reflect not only changes in basic hourly and incentive wage rates but also such variable factors as premium pay for over-time and late-shift work and changes in output of workers paid on an incentive plan. They also reflect shifts in the number of employees between relatively high-paid and low-paid work and changes in workers' earnings in individual establishments. Averages for groups and divisions further reflect differences in average hourly earnings for individual industries. Average weekly earnings are derived from a sample of employers who report payrolls and hours for production workers each month. Average weekly earnings data are produced by the Labor Market Information Center in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Annual Weekly Hours (available on the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics website)
The average number of hours worked, on a weekly basis, by nonfarm wage and salaried production workers. The information relates to the average hours for which pay was received and is different from standard or scheduled hours. Factors such as unpaid absenteeism, labor turnover, part-time work and stoppages cause average weekly hours to be lower than scheduled hours of work for an establishment. Group averages further reflect changes in the work week among component industries. Average weekly hours are derived from a sample of employers who report payrolls and hours for production workers each month. Annual weekly hours data are produced by the Labor Market Information Center in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Benchmarking
Once a year estimates published as "preliminary" and "subject to revision" (such as nonfarm wage and salaried worker levels or labor force data) have to be benchmarked (or revised) using data from other sources that were not available at the time of estimation, such as unemployment insurance tax records and results of surveys conducted on employers not covered by unemployment insurance. The benchmarking sources show actual employment counts and are used to revise estimated data. Revised estimates are then published, replacing all previously published data.

Consumer Price Index Inflation Calculator
CPI inflation calculator uses the average Consumer Price Index for a given calendar year. This data represents changes in prices of all goods and services purchased for consumption by urban households. This index value has been calculated every year since 1913. For the current year, the latest monthly index value is used.

Covered Workers
Workers covered by South Dakota Unemployment Insurance laws. Employers are required to report monthly employment and quarterly payrolls. The reported data is used in the covered worker and pay program conducted by the Labor Market Information Center in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics to determine number of workers and annual pay by industry group. See technical notes for more information.

Current Employment Statistics
The Current Employment Statistics (CES) program is a federal-state cooperative program between the Labor Market Information Center and the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the U.S. Department of Labor that produces estimated and historical time series data on employment, hours and earnings for multiple types of industries. Click here for more information, including definitions.

Employed
People residing in a specific area who are 16 years of age and older and who have a job. A more technical definition is the number of people who, during the calendar week including the 12th day of each month, did any work at all as paid employees or in their own business, profession, or on their own farm, or who worked 15 hours or more as an unpaid worker in a family-operated enterprise. This employed estimate also includes all those who did not work but had jobs or businesses from which they were temporarily absent due to illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management dispute or various personal reasons. The resident employed is calculated by the South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.See technical notes for more information.

Entered Employments (as part of the Activities of the South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation published in the South Dakota e-Labor Bulletin)
Of those job seekers who are not employed as of the date of first service, the number who are employed in the first quarter after the date of last service.

Establishment
An economic unit (generally at a single physical location) or worksite where business is conducted or where services or industrial operations are performed. A worksite generally conducts predominantly one type of economic activity. (For example: a factory, store, hotel, farm, bank or sales office.)

Establishment Size
The average number of workers at the establishment or worksite location determines establishment size. (See definition of "establishment" above.

Hiring Preference
The hiring preference reflects the level of education, training and work experience preferred, in general, by employers when hiring workers within occupations. Each of the hiring preference categories are as follows:

Short-term on-the-job training = workers can generally achieve average job performance after a short demonstration or up to one month of on-the-job experience and instruction.

Moderate-term on-the-job training = workers can generally achieve average job performance after one to 12 months of combined on-the-job experience and informal training, including skills learned by observing experienced workers.

Work experience = workers can generally achieve average job performance through work experience in the field.

Postsecondary education or combination of long-term on-the-job training & work experience = workers generally need postsecondary education or a combination of work experience and more than 12 months of on-the-job training to achieve average job performance.

Postsecondary education at less than the associate degree level = workers can generally achieve average job performance after completion of technical or vocational education ranging in length from a few weeks to more than a year but less than the associate degree level.

Associate degree = workers can generally achieve average job performance after completing a postsecondary education program granting an associate degree and usually involving about two years of full-time equivalent academic work, but less than four years.

Bachelor's degree = workers can generally achieve average job performance after completing a postsecondary education program granting a bachelor's degree and usually involving four years but not more than five years of full-time equivalent academic work.

Bachelor's degree & work experience = workers can generally achieve average job performance after completing a postsecondary education program granting a bachelor's degree, plus work experience in the field.

Master's degree = workers can generally achieve average job performance after completing a postsecondary education program granting a master's degree and usually involving one or two years of full-time equivalent academic work beyond the bachelor's level.

Doctoral Degree = workers can generally achieve average job performance after completing a postsecondary education program granting a doctoral degree and usually involving at least three years of equivalent academic work beyond the bachelor's degree.

First professional degree = workers can generally achieve average job performance after completing a postsecondary education program granting a professional degree and usually involving at least six years of full-time equivalent academic study, including college study prior to entering the professional degree program.

Job Openings Received (as part of the Activities of the South Dakota Department of Labor and
Regulation
published in the South Dakota e-Labor Bulletin)
The number of new job openings received from employers by South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation local offices during the stated reporting period.

Job Seekers (as part of the Activities of the South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation published in the South Dakota e-Labor Bulletin)
Any individual who has registered or been active (received a service) at a South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation local office or through the online job bank during the stated reporting period.

Labor Force
Labor force estimates include all civilians not in institutions, 16 years of age and older, who are classified as employed or unemployed. Labor force levels are given by place of residence and represent a count of employed and unemployed people. Labor force estimates are developed by the South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. See technical notes for more information.

Labor Market Area (LMA)
An economically integrated geographic area within which individuals can reside and find employment within a reasonable distance or can readily change employment without changing their place of residence.

Labor Supply
Labor supply can be defined as the number of persons who would be available to staff a new or expanding business in an area. Labor supply can be categorized into two groups: those who currently hold jobs (and would like to change) and those who, for a variety of reasons, do not have jobs. It includes workers who live in the area and also workers who would commute into the area to work. Labor supply data is developed by the South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation. See technical notes.

Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)
Areas qualifying as a Metropolitan Statistical Area according to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) must have at least one urbanized area of 50,000 or more population, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties.

Rapid City MSA - Pennington & Meade counties

Sioux Falls MSA - Lincoln, Minnehaha, McCook & Turner counties

Additionally, Union County of South Dakota is part of the Sioux City MSA, which also includes Dixon-Dakota County of Nebraska and Woodbury County of Iowa. Data for the Sioux City MSA will be published by the Iowa Workforce Information Network.

See technical notes for more information.

Micropolitan Statistical Area (MiSA)
Areas qualifying as a Micropolitan Statistical Area according to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) must have at least one urban cluster of at least 10,000 but less than 50,000 population, plus adjacent territory with a high degree of social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties.

Aberdeen MiSA - Brown & Edmunds counties

Brookings MiSA - Brookings County

Huron MiSA - Beadle County

Mitchell MiSA - Davison & Hanson counties

Pierre MiSA - Hughes & Stanley counties

Spearfish MiSA - Lawrence County

Vermillion MiSA - Clay County

Watertown MiSA - Codington & Hamlin counties

Yankton MiSA - Yankton County

See technical notes for more information.

NAICS
North American Industry Classification System, the production-oriented or supply-based framework that groups establishments into industries according to similarity in the processes used to produce goods or services. See the online NAICS manual.

National Economic Indicators (Published in the South Dakota e-Labor Bulletin.)

Consumer Price Index
Both the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) and the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPI-W) produced by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) are published on the Labor Market Information Center website. The Consumer Price Index is based on a national survey conducted by the BLS that measures the average change in prices over time in a fixed market basket of goods and services, chosen to be representative of goods and services purchased by American families for day-to-day living. The CPI is the most commonly used measure of the rate of inflation. The CPI reflects spending patterns for each of two population groups: all urban consumers and urban wage earners and clerical workers. The all urban consumers group represents about 87 percent of the total U.S. population. It is based on the expenditures of almost all residents of urban or metropolitan areas, including professionals, the self-employed, the poor, the unemployed and retired persons as well as urban wage earners and clerical workers. Not included in the CPI are the spending patterns of persons living in rural nonmetropolitan areas, farm families, persons in the Armed Forces, and those in institutions, such as prisons and mental hospitals. The CPI-W is based on the expenditures of households included in the CPI-U definition that also meet two requirements: More than one-half of the household's income must come from clerical or wage occupations and at least one of the household's earners must have been employed for at least 37 weeks during the previous 12 months. The CPI-W's population represents about 32 percent of the total U.S. population and is a subset, or part, of the CPI-U's population. 1982-84 = 100.

Nonfarm Payroll Employment
Published in terms of millions of workers. Not seasonally adjusted. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Privately Owned Housing Starts
Estimate of privately-owned housing starts, including units in residential structures being totally rebuilt on an existing foundation. (The start of construction is when excavation begins for the footings or foundation of a building.) Seasonally adjusted rates. Published in thousands of units. Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

Bank Prime Loan Rate
The rate posted by a majority of top 25 (by assets in domestic offices) insured U.S.-chartered commercial banks. Prime is one of several base rates used by banks to price short-term business loans. Source: Federal Reserve Board.

Nonfarm Wage & Salaried Workers
Nonfarm wage and salaried Workers estimates include all nonfarm full-time and part-time wage earners but exclude the self-employed and unpaid family workers. Persons holding more than one job are counted in each establishment in which they work. Statewide and MSA Nonfarm Wage & Salaried Workers estimates are developed by the South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. County Nonfarm Wage and Salaried Worker estimates are developed by the South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation. See technical notes for more information.

Not Seasonally Adjusted

Over the course of a year, employment levels undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes in weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays and the opening and closing of schools. Data that is not seasonally adjusted reflects these seasonal events, unlike data that has undergone seasonal adjustment.

Occupational Descriptions
See desriptions of occupations in the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) taxonomy in code order.
See desriptions of occupations in the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) taxonomy in alphabetical order.

Occupational Wages
Refers to a unit of compensation for the performance of labor, such as an hourly wage or annual salary, but does not include overtime, bonus pay or the value of benefits paid to workers. Occupational wage rates are developed by the South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. See technical notes for more information, including an explanation of percentile wage data.

Per Capita Personal Income
The personal income of the residents of a state divided by the July 1 resident population of the state. (See the definition of personal income below.) Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Percentile Wages
Percentile Wages: represents the percentage of an occupation's workers who earn less than or equal to that wage. For certain occupations, the upper percentile wages may not be available because of disclosure concerns or reliability issues. See technical notes for more information

Personal Income
Income received by persons from all sources. It includes income received from participation in production as well as from government and business transfer payments. It is the sum of compensation of employees (received), supplements to wages and salaries, proprietors' income with inventory valuation adjustment (IVA) and capital consumption adjustment (CCAdj), rental income of persons with CCAdj, personal income receipts on assets, and personal current transfer receipts, less contributions for government social insurance. Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis.

Seasonal Adjustment
Over the course of a year, employment levels undergo sharp fluctuations due to such seasonal events as changes in weather, reduced or expanded production, harvests, major holidays and the opening and closing of schools. Because these seasonal events follow a more or less regular pattern each year, their influence on statistical trends can be eliminated by adjusting the statistics from month-to-month. See labor force technical notes or seasonally adjusted wage and salaried nonfarm worker data technical notes for more information.

South Dakota Local Office Activities Data (Published in the South Dakota e-Labor Bulletin.)
The local office activities data are taken from South Dakota employment service (local South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation offices). The data are reported on a rolling four-quarter basis. The terms are defined as follows:

Job Seekers - any individual who has registered or been active (received a service) at a South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation local office or through the online job bank during the stated reporting period.

Entered Employments - Of those job seekers who are not employed as of the date of first service, the number who are employed in the first quarter after the date of last service.

Job Openings Received - the number of new job openings received from employers by South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation local offices during the stated reporting period.

South Dakota Unemployment Insurance Activities (Published in the South Dakota e-Labor Bulletin.)
The Unemployment Insurance Activities data are taken from state unemployment insurance program reports. The data are monthly totals. The terms are defined as follows:

Initial Claims - the total number of first claims for regular state unemployment compensation.

Weeks Claimed - the total number of continued weeks claimed for regular state unemployment compensation.

Amount of Benefit Payments - the total amount of money paid to claimants for regular state unemployment compensation.

Unemployment Trust Fund Balance - the month-ending balance for the fund to which all required unemployment insurance taxes are paid and from which all benefits to claimants are paid.

TourIsm Industry
"Tourism" is not a specific industry sector in the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) taxonomy used in labor market data (such as worker levels by industry); instead, "tourism" involves several different industry sectors (such as Leisure and Hospitality, Retail Trade, etc.). LMIC-published employment data within those industries that is related to vacation travel cannot be distinguished from that which is not related to vacation travel. For example, employment in the Food Services and Drinking Places industry cannot be broken out into tourist-related employment and non-tourist related. Another difficulty in identifying tourism's impact on specific industry sectors is due to tourism's seasonal patterns. It can be a challenge to define how many jobs during a specific time period are related to tourism activities. Studies related to tourism often include a survey of businesses to determine specifically how much of their activity is tourism-related.

Unemployed
People who are 16 years of age and older and do not have a job but are actively seeking a job. A more technical definition is the number of those who did not work at all during the week of the 12th, but were looking for work and were available for work during that week, except for temporary illness. Those who had made specific efforts to find work within the preceding four-week period, such as registering at a public or private employment agency, writing letters of application, canvassing for work, etc., are considered to be looking for work. This figure also includes those who did not work at all during the reference week, were available for work and were waiting to be called back to a job from which they had been laid off, or were waiting to report to a new job scheduled to start within the following 30 days. Passive methods of job search, such as attending a job-training program course, or merely reading want ads would not qualify a person as unemployed. Unemployed data is developed by the South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.See technical notes for more information.

Unemployment Rate
The percentage of the labor force that does not have jobs but are actively seeking jobs. A more technical definition is the number of unemployed divided by the total number of people in the resident labor force. Unemployment rate data is developed by the South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. See technical notes for more information.

Wages
Refers to a unit of compensation for the performance of labor, such as an hourly wage or annual salary, but does not include overtime, bonus pay or the value of benefits paid to workers. Occupational wage rates are developed by the South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. See technical notes for more information, including an explanation of percentile wage data.



Marcia Hultman, Secretary
700 Governors Drive
Pierre, SD 57501-2291
Tel. 605.773.3101
Fax. 605.773.6184